Osteoarthritis is a common condition that affects joints of the body. It causes structural changes within a joint or multiple joint, resulting in pain and loss of function. Osteoarthritis is associated with several factors, including genetic, mechanical, hormonal and inflammatory factors.

Symptoms of osteoarthritis

The symptoms of osteoarthritis can vary from one person to the next and change within the same person over time. Some of the common symptoms include:

  • Stiffness
  • Pain associated with movement
  • Joint swelling
  • Muscle weakness
  • Joint instability
  • Reduced range of movement
  • Sounds within the joints.

Any joint in the body can be affected by osteoarthritis. Most commonly, it is the larger weight-bearing joints, such as knees and hips, that are most affected.

Management of osteoarthritis

If you have osteoarthritis it is important that your condition is monitored by a health professional, and that they create an osteoarthritis management plan for you. In most cases a management plan that focuses on non-surgical and non-pharmacological care is best. It is critical that the management plan supports you to take an active role.

It is also important that you have an understanding of osteoarthritis and how to manage it appropriately. This involves being informed about:

  • Your condition – including information about interventions that have been shown not to work and those for which there is no clear evidence for effectiveness
  • Living with and managing osteoarthritis
  • Managing pain
  • Pain relieving medication
  • How to adopt a healthy lifestyle – it is important that you maintain general fitness levels, reduce sedentary life style habits and eat healthily
  • The importance of managing your weight – people who are overweight or obese are strongly encouraged to lose weight, and should be supported in doing so
  • Exercises or physical activity that will be of specific help to you.

Managing osteoarthritis pain

If you have osteoarthritis it is important to know about how to manage your pain, including how to pace and plan your daily activities.

Some people may have a specific pain management plan created for them, or they may be referred to a pain management clinic. 

Talk to your health care professional about pain relieving medication, including the benefits and potential risks. 

Use of pain-relieving medication to manage osteoarthritis focuses on improving symptoms, not changing the disease process itself. There are different medications that are available depending on your symptoms and other medical conditions. 

It is important to note that pain associated with osteoarthritis may change over time, which will influence what medication is required. Opiate-based medications are generally not recommended in the management of osteoarthritis.

Exercise programs for osteoarthritis

Exercise is an important and effective part of any osteoarthritis management plan. It can help to reduce your pain and increase your level of mobility.

A health professional such as an exercise physiologist or physiotherapist can provide you with an individualised exercise program that is tailored to your needs. 

Appropriate exercise for osteoarthritis includes strength training, stretching, aerobic and balance programs. Such programs can be undertaken at home or as part of a group and depending upon your preference you can do them on land or in water. 

If any exercises feel uncomfortable, talk to the healthcare professional who is managing your program to make sure you are doing them properly and that they are appropriate for you. The aim is to start with what is achievable for you and build up your program slowly over time.

Surgery for osteoarthritis

In most cases of osteoarthritis surgery is not required. However, if you have tried all non-surgical treatments options without success, and you are still experiencing significant pain and loss of function, then surgery may be an option. 

The most common surgery for osteoarthritis is a total joint replacement. When considering surgery, you should be informed about what it involves, the rehabilitation process, its likely benefits and any potential risks. Arthroscopy is not recommended for people with osteoarthritis.

Where to get help 

  • Your GP (doctor)
  • Physiotherapist, or other allied health professional
  • Musculoskeletal Australia NationalHelp Line Tel. 1800 263 265 



Source: Better Health Channel, https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/ConditionsAndTreatments/osteoarthritis   

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Community Groups

Run by Arthritis NSW, most meet monthly. Visit Arthritis NSW or call 1800 011 041 to find a group running near you.

Cost: Free, may have small contribution

Pain Australia

Have a range of different support groups and online community groups that are established or facilitated by people who live with joint pain.

Visit Pain Australia

Cost: Varies

Musculoskeletal Australia

Provide a range of peer support groups in several different locations.

To find out more information visit Musculoskeletal Australia

Cost: Free

Warm Water Exercise classes

Organised by Arthritis & Osteoporosis NSW, these water aerobics classes are available at locations across the Sydney Metropolitan and Wollongong areas. For further details and to find out if a class runs near you or call 02 9857 3300

Cost: $15 for members per class and $20 for non-members per class

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